A manager in ethical hot water can be compared to a frog in a soup pot, says Carter McNamara. If you put a frog in a pot of hot water, it will immediately jump out, McNamara writes in The Complete Guide to Ethics Management: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers. But if you put a frog in a pot of cool water and very gradually increase the heat of the burner, you can boil the frog before it knows what’s up.
The point here is that most ethical problems are created not by management mischief but by poor decisions made by managers under stress. For public broadcasters struggling to manage rapid change, stress is constant. You can almost feel the water getting warmer.
When the survival of the station is in question, the range of acceptable alternatives can grow at a frightening rate. To avoid making frog soup, we must give significant attention to ethics.
"Management mischief" has been the focus of stories about Enron, Tyco and WorldCom, and it’s not unheard of in public broadcasting, but the vast majority of ethics problems in the field arise where managers must make complex choices in the midst of wide gray areas. McNamara points out the differences between management mischief and "moral mazes."
In these moral mazes, decision-makers must navigate through potential conflicts of interest, avoid misusing resources, and prevent mismanagement of contracts, agreements and grants. When such issues arise on a daily basis—particularly when survival seems to be at stake—good people can take bad actions.
To guide our behavior, we need to create a moral compass for ourselves and for our managers. Freedom to Care, a British whistle-blower’s support group, borrowed from the work of Geoff Hunt in creating such a compass for itself in the OPAL Principles:
Openness: Open management facilitates honesty, transparency, and timely and effective communication in decision-making. It helps managers avoid secretiveness, defensiveness and exclusion.
Performance with Integrity: Decision-makers perform their duties without sacrificing personal, professional or corporate integrity. Rather, their integrity guides their choice of objectives and means.
Accountability: Managers are prepared to explain and justify the organization’s acts to relevant stakeholders when appropriate. The organizations have mechanisms by which they can be held accountable.
Leadership: Executives provide guidance to others through personal example and sound judgment and courage, which commands moral, ethical and professional respect.
Those core values provide invaluable support for the work of Freedom to Care. For public broadcasting organizations, developing a set of principles like those can help them manage ethical dilemmas by avoiding them in the first place. Such values statements must be brought to life by leaders who live by them and teach them inside their organizations.
A core value statement is like an organization’s DNA. It may share components with the values statement of another organization, but the combination will remain unique to that organization.
To make it real, talk it through
Your entire staff should be involved in developing your core values statement, expressing and discussing their own values. Otherwise it will be empty rhetoric. Without discussion, there can be greater differences of opinion among staff members than the manager knows.
If we asked a group of 100 individuals, "Do you behave respectfully to all the employees in your workplace?" 99 of the 100 would say they certainly do. But if we asked the same group if their co-workers universally treat them with respect, 99 would say absolutely not. The difference is in our individual definitions of "respectful" behavior.
The organization where I work, Transformations Consulting Group, brought every member of its team into a facilitated discussion of our values, giving specific language and examples of behavior consistent with those values. The result was this statement:
"Transformations Consulting Group is based on a foundation of trust. Our values of Teamwork, Communication skills, and Growth and development of business grow from that trust in one another.
"Trust is our foundation. Trust can be described behaviorally:
- Acts with integrity, adhering to the highest standards of conduct and code of values on both a personal and professional level.
- Demonstrates a long and consistent track record of acting with honesty, principle and integrity.
- Is honest, fair and straightforward, both explicitly and implicitly, in principles, intentions and actions.
- Respects the rights of others and the company’s principles and code of ethics."
For TCG’s complete values statement, see below.
What would your staff do?
Once you have developed your station’s own statement of core values and ethics, it is important for the staff to discuss specific ethical hazards. Doug Wallace, a consultant based in Twin Cities, describes a significant ethical conflict as a situation with (1) significant value conflicts among interested parties, (2) real alternatives that individuals may argue for or against and (3) significant consequences for interested parties.
Here are a couple of examples we have heard in our work:
- "My g.m. tells me that one of my employees is among a group to be laid off soon, but we are not at liberty to disclose the layoff for several weeks. Meanwhile, I know that my employee is planning to make arrangements to remodel his house. What do I do?"
- "My station is selling underwriting for a special event we hold annually. Last year an insurance company participated at a significant level. This year we are discussing their participation once again, but the senior managers at the insurance company have changed. We know the insurance company has "deep pockets" and we could probably charge them more than other underwriters and they would agree to pay more than the "going rate." What should we do?"
Encourage your senior staff to discuss potentially difficult ethical situations like these. Use your core values statement as a litmus test for weighing alternative actions. Discuss potential consequences and their pros and cons. Develop consensus around outcomes that would serve the interests of all parties, which you could explain and defend as consistent with your stated values. Arm your staff with not only the values statements but also the experience of working through potential gray areas before these situations arise.
The exercise is worth the trouble. McNamara identifies a number of potential benefits of managing ethics in the workplace:
- Ethics programs help maintain a moral course in turbulent times. Leaders need a moral compass to help determine what is right and appropriate to the situation. The emphasis on ethics will sensitize staff and managers to consider how they want to act.
- Ethics management cultivates teamwork and productivity. Discussion of core values and ethics in the workplace builds openness and community. When employees feel their personal values are clearly aligned with the organization’s, they gain motivation and pride.
- Ethics management supports the personal growth of employees. They can face difficult issues with greater confidence.
- Ethics programs promote a strong public image. When an organization openly and frequently focuses on ethics, the public senses that it’s worthy of trust and support.
- Most importantly, it’s the right thing to do.
People have long trusted public radio and public television, both in their local and national incarnations. Their high-quality programs carry meaning, balance and integrity for millions of listeners, viewers and donors.
Ethics management is completely consistent with this mission and this image. It can help stations weather challenges, grow in stature and confidence and lead by example in the nonprofit community. Don’t allow the circumstances of our stressful times to boil that frog.
Transformations Consulting Group values statement
Transformations Consulting Group is based on a foundation of trust. Our values of Teamwork, Communication skills, and Growth and development of business grow from that trust in each other.
Trust is our foundation.
Acts with integrity; adhering to the highest standards of conduct and code of values on both a personal and professional level
Demonstrates a long and consistent track record of acting with honesty, principle, and integrity
Is honest; fair and straight forward, both explicitly and implicitly, in principles, intentions, and actions
Respects the rights of others, and the company's principles and code of ethics
Teamwork is working collaboratively with others to achieve success.
Lends support to others when they need it
Shares expertise with others and takes full advantage of expertise that others have to offer
Places issues on the table and works through them
Shares good ideas; keeps others well informed
Strives for clear definitions of problems or opportunities and clear agreement on how they will be addressed
Assures that everyone understands who is responsible for what, and when work is due; consistently meets these deadlines and expectations
Notices and addresses problems in personal or group dynamics
Fosters a sense of team spirit; demonstrates the philosophy that work can be fun
Makes certain credit is given when due
Respects personal boundaries; each member is responsible for telling team members quickly and in value neutral language when personal boundaries are exceeded.
Holds each other accountable; clearly communicating expectations, ensuring deadlines can be met, checking in on progress and expecting others to live up to their word.
Responds to each other
Consistently seeks and finds approaches that accomplish tasks while minimizing the use of resources, carefully calculating costs vs. benefits
Communication skills are demonstrated by interacting with each other and our clients in an honest, open way.
Gives and receives effective feedback and lessons with each other and with our clients
Projects openness to ideas and suggestions of others
Accepts different speaking styles
Listens to the feelings of the speaker
Observes the speaker's gestures and body language
Takes notes to facilitate understanding
Avoids interrupting others
Asks relevant questions which seeks information
Encourages written or verbal evaluation from our clients and each other
Communicates clearly and often; asking for help, offering assistance, showing curiosity about other's projects and offering to get involved
Presents oneself with confidence and effectiveness to audiences at all levels within our company and at the client's company
Uses clear and concise language
Growth and development of business is essential to achieve company goals.
Ensures confidentiality on our client's behalf and on the behalf of TCG
Respects the needs of our clients; understanding what they want to accomplish, not what we need
Matches staff capability and capacity to the work that needs to be accomplished
Ensures client's qualifications match our abilities both in deliverables and budget
Evaluates work periodically with the client and appropriate staff to determine if project is on the proper course; make timely adjustments as needed
Avoids conflicts of interest
Provides loyalty and dedication to the client and TCG
Ensures successful results, operationally and financially, for both the client and TCG
Understands diversity as an inclusive term
Shows respect for others culture
Creates a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere for client interactions